VACCINATION

As a dog owner you are supposed to follow the Spanish rules regarding rabies vaccination. Since Los Alcázares is in the Murcia province which is close to Gibraltar and Morocco, the rules are stricter. If you live in Los Alcázares (Murcia) you have to vaccinate your dog on a yearly basis.

 

REGISTRATION

You can register your dogs microchip or tattoo in a spanish database in the city you live in. This is done at the veterinary and costs about 15 euro per dog. If the dog runs away and is found, the chip or tattoo is read and the owners contact info shows up; Name, address, phone number and so on. If the dog isn't registered in Spain no info will show up and the dog will likely end up in a perrera which is a killing station.

 

PPP LICENSE (PERROS POTENCIALMENTE PELIGROSOS) FOR DANGEROUS BREEDS

Any person owning a potentially dangerous dog (perros potencialmente peligrosos) in Spain must have an appropriate licence (by law of article 3 of the Royal Decree 287/2002, of 22 of March 2002) and the dog must be registered with the municipality.

 

Handlers and walkers of dangerous or potentially dangerous dogs must also be licenced (article 1, 2 of Law 50/1999, of December 1999).

A licence is valid for five years.

 

Potentially dangerous dog are identified as being in one of three categories:

1. Breeds and breed crosses classified as potentially dangerous:

  • Doberman (Andalucia only)
  • Pit Bull Terrier
  • Staffordshire Bull Terrier
  • American Staffordshire Terrier
  • Rottweiler
  • Dogo Argentino
  • Fila Brasileiro
  • Tosa Inu
  • Akita Inu

 

2. Dogs with certain characteristics of these breeds are also classified as potentially dangerous. The characteristics are:

  • Strong musculature, powerful or athletic constitution, robustness, agility, vigor and endurance
  • Short hair
  • Deep chest (60 to 80 cm), height of over 50 cm and a weight over 20 Kg
  • Big, square, head, with a wide skull and strong jaws
  • Broad, short and muscled neck.
  • Straight, parallel forelegs and muscular hindquarters, relatively long back legs standing at an angle

 

3. Dogs that have a track record of aggression to humans and other animals must also be licenced and registered.

 

Dog owner licence application

  • The licence application is made to the municipality of the place of residence. The applicant must take the following (an applicant must be over 18 years):
  • Proof of identity (passport or residence card)
  • Proof of having no criminal convictions
  • Proof of being mentally and physically capable of looking after one of these animals. (There are centres test of physical and psychological aptitude can be done and a certificate issued. The certificate must have been issued in the previous 12 months)
  • An insurance contract for the dog with a liability of at least €120,000 (€175,000 in Andalucia)
  • Proof of fully up-to-date vaccinations
  • Proof of identification by microchip
  • Proof that the dog is or has attended training school

 

Once accepted, a licence (the licencia para tener perros potencialmente peligrosos) is issued.

 

Dog registration

Potentially dangerous dogs must be registered with the municipal registry for dangerous dogs (Registro Municipal de Perros Potencialmente Peligrosos). Registration of the dog must be renewed annually.

 

Required documentation for licence renewal:

  • Proof of identification and microchip number’s certificate
  • Certificate from the vet stating that the dog is in good health

 

Walking a potentially dangerous dog

Dog owners or handlers must carry the licence and dog registration document when out with the dog.

The dog must be muzzled and on a lead of no more than two metres long (one metre in Andalucia).

Only one dog may be handled per person.

In Andalucia, dangerous animals are banned from entering children’s leisure or recreational areas.

Further information on dog licences and regulations is available on the official government website.

 

DOG DISEASES

Leishmaniosis

Travelling to the Mediterranean might expose your dog to a severe, often fatal disease called canine leishmaniosis. Leishmaniosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease transmitted through the bites of the phlebotomine sand flies and is the third most important disease worldwide.

 

How is Leishmaniosis spread?

The disease is carried from dog to dog by a microscopic parasite called infantum is spread by sand fly bites. Dogs can be bitten up to 100 times an hour during the sand fly season, which begins in May and ends in September.

 

The transmission of leishmaniosis (leishmaniasis) occurs as follows:

A sand fly bites a dog which is carrying leishmaniosis. Later, the same sand fly bites a healthy dog and injects leishmania with her saliva under the skin of the dog. From the site of infection, the "chancre", the leishmania start a very difficult development in several steps until they reach the blood and after an incubation period of between 3 weeks and 3 months (sometimes 3 years), depending on the state of the dogs defense system, the first visible symptoms occur.

 

The sand fly is active between April and November (during the warm season) and disappears in winter. The sand fly hides during the daytime and comes out late afternoon with the highest period of activity occurring at night between 2AM and 4AM. Therefore, dogs who live outside are much more exposed to sand fly bites than dogs who live inside - especially if the house is well protected against mosquitoes with nets and chemical products. The month of August is the worst, and this is when the highest amount of sand flies are registered. This is when they are most likely to invade the house where they will hide in dark bathrooms or wardrobes.

 

The main symptoms of leishmaniosis in a dog are:

Skin alterations, eye alterations, weight loss, long growth of nails, swollen lymph glands, liver and kidney disease including failure. Alterations in blood coagulation with anemia, nose bleeding, lameness, chronic diarrhea etc.

 

The diagnosis of leishmaniosis is mainly by blood test, together with a general clinical check and control of the liver and kidney functions. Other diagnostic tools are: skin biopsy or bone marrow biopsy which are not routinely employed.

 

Treatment of leishmaniosis in a dog is only effective if begun at an early stage of the infection, better even before they show any symptoms. Therefore, it is very important to make regular blood tests in dogs, once a year and better in the winter months, to find out if the dog was infected during the summer. Early treatment normally avoids symptoms and gives the dog a longer life.

 

Dogs with mild symptoms can be treated successfully as well, but dogs with serious anemia or serious alteration of liver / kidney function very often cannot be treated successfully.

 

Prevention of Leishmaniosis

It is very difficult to prevent leishmaniosis 100%, because sand flies are so very tiny they can even penetrate mosquito netting, but there are 3 key points to help avoid risk of infection.

A. Dogs should be kept inside at night to reduce exposure to sand fly bites.

B. Provide your dog with a special anti-sand fly collar which is proven to be more effective than other insecticides. Start in March with the collar application and maintain it until the end of November (ask your vet for the correct collar).

C. A yearly blood test to make sure your dog has not contracted this disease.

 

There is still no vaccination against leishmaniosis, but investigation into this subject is advancing.

 

Ehrlchiosis or Tick Disease

Ticks hide in well watered gardens and in the bushes and shrubbery of the fields, especially in areas frequented by passing sheep and goats. This is where dogs collect ticks. The female tick of the Rhipicephalus can be a "carrier" of tick disease, she can carry bacteria of the species "Rickettsia", known as Ehrlichia canis in her saliva. Whilst sucking blood from the dog, the tick can infect the dog with Ehrlichia. After a variable incubation period, Ehrlichia reach certain white blood cells (moncytes) which flow in the blood stream and can infect the whole body.

 

Prevention of Tick Disease

After every walk, examine your dog for ticks. If you find ticks, remove them immediately, the longer the tick sucks blood, the more likely is a following infection with tick disease. Ask your vet how to remove a tick correctly.

 

In regions where there is a big tick problem, the dog should be protected with special repellent, anti-tick collars or liquids, ask your veterinarian for advice.

 

If you find a tick fixed in your own skin, remove it immediately with alcohol (of the pharmaceutical variety, NOT gin!) and a clockwise turning movement. NEVER PULL. Then consult your doctor.

 

Symptoms of Tick Disease

A. High fever and complete weakness after tick infestation.

B. Eye and nose discharge.

C. Loss of appetite, loss of weight.

D. Serious anemia, sudden hemorrhages (bleeding from the nose, the mouth, the intestine, subcutaneous bleeding).

 

Diagnosis of Tick Disease

A general check in conjunction with a blood test is the best way to determine Ehrlichia.

 

Treatment of Tick Disease

In the early stages, the application of a special antibiotic for 10-14 days. In some dogs who have a weak defense system, symptoms can appear so violently that the animal needs intensive care with blood transfusions. If the disease is not detected in time, the dog can die.

Filariosis or Heartworm

Filariosis is the so called Heartworm Disease. It is caused by a special parasite which breeds inside the arterial vessels of the host. Transmission occurs from mosquito bites. A lot of mosquito species are carriers of infectious stages of the heartworm. Main victims that are infected are again dogs. Cats do not normally contract it.

 

Heartworm disease is a "summer disease" as it goes together with mosquito bites. The main season is April until October. Female mosquitoes transmit infectious stages of Dirofilaria in the skin of the host (mainly dogs). From the site of the infection, the small dirofilaria larvae start a subcutaneous migration of several weeks, until they reach the circulation which carries them to their main breeding place, the right heart chamber and the main lung artery. By this time the parasites are starting to cause serious damage to the dog's circulation system. They cause a bloodstream blockage as they live in the right heart chamber and the main lung artery. In advance cases these problems lead to heart failure and sudden death.

 

Prevention

Prevention is far better than treatment in this case. Prevention is very easy and saves the dog a lot of problems. There exist several preparations on the market, either topical or oral treatment which is applied once a month (ask your vet) between April and October. They kill the infectious worm stages immediately after the mosquito bite, thus avoiding consequent problems.

 

Symptoms of Filariosis

Several months after infection, clinical symptoms occur. Chronic cough, loss of energy, loss of oxygen with the lightest of exercise, fever, expectoration of blood, anemia, swelling of the hind legs, ascites (water in the abdominal cave), altered liver and kidney blood values and in severe cases a life threatening heart insufficiency

 

Diagnosis

A microscopic examination of the patient's blood sample often shows living worms. If no worms are found, a serologic test will give a safe and definite diagnosis.

 

Treatment

The success of treatment depends upon the stage of infection. Treatment before the appearance of heart insufficiency or oedemas is easy and successful. It comprises of two injections against the adult worms and a consecutive oral treatment against the larvae which infect the blood stream. Advanced cases are very difficult to treat. they require the surgical removal of the worms in the heart and lungs, followed by the complete rest of the dog for one month with special anticoagulant therapy and later on, the anti-heartworm therapy described above.

 

Processionary Caterpillars

Processionary Caterpillars are so called because they form processions, nose to tail, as they leave the nest prior to changing into moths. They are found in all Mediterranean climatic areas. The "nests" are fist sized or larger balls of spun filaments, usually lodged in fairly high branches of pine trees.

 

The months from October through to March and April see the time when the caterpillars descend from the cocoon nests and they will then form "processions" in search of soft, warm earth in which to pupate. There can be hundreds of caterpillars nose to tail, winding along roadways, paths, grass, whatever. The caterpillars have poisonous and irritant brittle hairs on their bodies, and are a mottled dull brown with faded yellowish splotches.

 

For pets, dogs and cats, the problem is that the caterpillars have a bittersweet smell and taste, and both dogs and cats will try to eat them. The results are almost certainly fatal, as little as three or four will kill a medium sized dog, and one may produce death in a cat. The reaction to the poison also causes necrosis of the tongue, and by the time the owner notices the problem, it is usually too late for veterinary treatment to do much except ease suffering.

 

Do not brush a procession away as this can cause more problems than it solves, spreading the irritation-producing hairs and thus the risk of poisoning actually becomes higher as a result.

 

Symptoms

Initial symptoms to watch out for in your pet may include vomiting and tongue swelling.

 

CAT DISEASES

Feline Leukaemia

This is a very dangerous virus with worldwide distribution and very advanced in our region. The Feline Leukaemia Virus causes a "slow virus infection", in other words it has a long incubation period before the first symptoms occur. It affects the lymphopoetic system of the body and the bone marrow. Symptoms can be very unspecific like weight loss, swelling of the lymph glands and general depression. It can also cause liver or kidney swelling or a tumor of the thyme in the chest. A blood test very often shows tumorous white blood cells, but sometimes they disappear from the blood and an antibody test is needed to diagnose the disease.

 

Treatment of FeLV consist of chemotherapy, similar to leukemia in humans, but life expectancy is not long. It is much better to prevent leukemia in cats as the virus is identified and an effective vaccination exists. Prevention is safe and consists of a yearly vaccination.

 

Feline Immune Deficiency Virus FIV

This virus is distributed worldwide and is advancing in our region. People call it "cat AIDS" because the symptoms resemble human AIDS. No relationship between human AIDS and cat AIDS has been demonstrated. As its name says, this virus affects the cats defense system, exposing the cat to any unspecific infection without the normal function of its defense system, Symptoms are very unspecific like general depression, recurrent high fever, recurrent flu infections, skin infections and after a certain time depending on the cats condition - death. Very often the FIV virus prepares the way for other virus infections such as Feline Leukemia This combination is fatal for the cat in a short time. There is no existing vaccination, although this virus is the most threatening infection today for our cats.

 

Babesiosis

The babesia is a small parasite (protozoa) which affects the red blood cells of its host. Babesia is transmitted by ticks (Rhipicephalus, Dermacentor) - brown female ticks. Ticks acquire Babesia whilst sucking blood from infected animals. Later the tick sucks blood from a healthy animal and transmits the Babesia. Babesia infections are reported in horses, dogs, foxes and other wild animals, also in man, but in the Mediterranean area it is mainly dogs who become infected because of the prevalence of Babesia Canis species. Direct infection between dogs and humans is not possible. It is always the tick which infects the mammals. After the bite of a tick infected with Babesia, the dog starts a period of incubation which lasts between 10 days and 3 weeks. During this time, Babesias start to penetrate the red blood cells and to multiply "to breed"

 

After the incubation period, the dog will start with clinical symptoms, the degree of which depends on the dogs own defense system.

- dogs with a weak defense system suffer an acute shock and die

- dogs with a normal defense system show high fever, loss of appetite, general weakness, pale mucous membranes and often a dark brown urine.

- in advanced cases, rheumatic like pain, muscle stiffness and serious problems with blood coagulation, spleen swelling and jaundice add to the symptoms mentioned above.

 

Diagnosis

Clinical symptoms and the demonstration of Babesia in the peripheral blood (ear vein) leads to a safe diagnosis. In chronic cases, a blood test (antibodies) for babesia is recommended.

 

Treatment

A special drug, administered twice by injection eliminates Babesia. In severe cases intensive treatment and blood transfusions are required.

 

Prevention

Tick prevention! Protect your dog during the main tick season (March until November) with special tick collars or liquids (ask your vet). If you find a tick on your dog, remove it immediately (with turning clockwise movements). The tick needs 3 days of bloodsucking on the dog to transmit Babesia. The earlier you remove it, the less is the risk of this infection.